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A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century
by Agnes M. Clerke

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Trade Paperback
500 pages
Sattre Press
ISBN 0-9718305-5-X
Size: 6 x 8.75"

This is a facsimile reprint of the 4th edition of 1902. All of the original notes, illustrations and tables are included. Dr. Mary Brück, author of Agnes Mary Clerke and the Rise of Astrophysics, has contributed a new Foreword.


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Table of Contents
Introduction
Three kinds of astronomy -- Progress of the science during the eighteenth century-- Popularity and advance during the nineteenth century

Progress of Astronomy During the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

Foundation of Sidereal Astronomy
State of knowledge regarding the stars in the eighteenth century -- Career of Sir William Herschel -- Constitution of the stellar system -- Double stars -- Herschel's discovery of their revolutions -- His method of star-gauging -- Discoveries of nebulae -- Theory of their condensation into stars -- Summary of results

Progress of Sidereal Astronomy
Exact astronomy in Germany -- career of Bessel -- His Fundamental Astromiae -- Career of Fraunhofer -- Parallaxes of fixed stars -- Translation of the solar system -- Astronomy of the invisible -- Struve's researches in double stars -- Sir John Herschel's exploration of the heavens -- Fifty years' progress

Progress of Knowledge Regarding the Sun
Early views as to the nature of sun-spots -- Wilson's observations and reasonings -- Sir William Herschel's theory of the solar constitution -- Sir John Herschel's trade-wind hypothesis -- Baily's Beads -- Total solar eclipse of 1842 -- Corona and prominences -- Eclipse of 1851

Planetary Discoveries
Bode's Law -- Search for a missing planet -- Its discovery by Piazzi -- Further discoveries of minor planets -- Unexplained disturbance of Uranus -- Discovery of Neptune -- Its satellite - An eighth Saturnian moon - Saturn's dusky ring - The Uranian system

Comets
Predicted return of Halley's Comet -- Career of Olbers -- Acceleration of Encke's Comet -- Biela's Comet -- Its duplication -- Faye's Comet -- Comet of 1811 -- Electrical theory of cometary emanations -- The Earth in a comet's tail -- Second return of Halley's Comet -- Great Comet of 1843 -- Results to knowledge

Instrumental advances
Two principles of telescopic construction -- Early reflectors -- Three varieties -- Herschel's specula -- High magnifying powers -- Invention of the achromatic lens -- Guinand's optical glass -- The great Ross reflector -- Its disclosures -- Mounting of telescopes -- Astronomical circles -- Personal equation

Recent Progress of Astronomy

Foundation of Astronomical Physics
Schwabe's discovery of a decennial sun-spot period -- Coincidence with periods of magnetic disturbance -- Sun-spots and weather -- Spectrum analysis - Preliminary inquiries -- Fraunhofer lines -- Kirchhoff's principle -- Anticipations -- Elementary principles of spectrum analysis -- Unity of nature

Solar Observations and Theories
Black openings in spots -- Carrington's observations -- Rotation of the Sun -- Kirchhoff's theory of the solar constitution -- Faye's views -- Solar photography -- Kew observations -- Spectroscopic method -- Cyclonic theory of sun-spots -- Volcanic hypothesis -- a solar outburst -- Sun-spot periodicity -- Planetary influence -- Structure of the photosphere

Recent Solar Eclipses
Expeditions to Spain -- Great Indian eclipse -- New method of viewing prominences -- Total eclipse visible in North America -- Spectrum of the corona -- Eclipse of 1870 -- Young's reversing layer -- Eclipse of 1871 -- Corona of 1878 -- Varying coronal types -- Egyptian eclipse -- Daylight coronal photography -- Observations at Caroline Island -- Photographs of corona in 1886 and 1889 -- Eclipses of 1896, 1898, 1900, and 1901 -- Mechanical theory of corona

Solar Spectroscopy
Chemistry of prominences -- Study of their forms -- Two classes -- Photographs and spectrographs of prominences -- Their distribution -- Structure of the chromosphere -- Spectroscopic determination of solar rotation -- Velocities of transport in the Sun -- Lockyear's theory of dissociation -- Solar constituents -- Oxygen absorption in solar spectrum

Temperature of the Sun
Thermal power of the Sun -- Radiation and temperature -- Estimates of solar temperature -- Rosetti's and Wilson's results -- Zöllner's method -- Langley's experiment at Pittsburgh -- the Sun's atmosphere -- Langley's bolometric researches -- Selective absorption by our air -- the Solar constant

The Sun's Distance
Difficulty of the problem -- Opposition of Mars -- Transits of Venus -- Lunar disturbance -- Velocity of light -- Transit of 1874 -- Inconclusive result -- Opposition of Mars in 1877 -- Measurements of minor planets -- Transit of 1882 -- Newcomb's determination of the velocity of light -- Combined result

Planets and Satellites
Schröter's life and work -- Luminous appearances during transits of Mercury -- Mountains of Mercury -- Intra-Mercurian planets -- Schiaparelli's results for the rotation of Mercury and Venus -- Ashen light -- Solidity of the Earth -- Variation of latitude -- Secular changes of climate -- Figure of the globe -- Study of the Moon's surface -- Lunar atmosphere -- New craters -- Thermal energy of moonlight -- Tidal friction -- Analogy between Mars and the Earth -- Martian snowcaps, seas, and continents -- Climate and atmosphere -- Schiaparelli's canals -- Discovery of two Martian satellites -- Photographic detection of minor planets -- Orbit of Eros -- Distribution of the minor planets -- Their collective mass and estimated diameters -- Condition of Jupiter -- His spectrum -- Transits of his satellites -- Discovery of a fifth satellite -- The Great Red Spot -- Constitution of Saturn's rings -- Period of rotation of the planet -- Variability of Japetus -- Equatorial markings on Uranus -- His spectrum -- Rotation of Neptune -- Trans-Neptunian planets

Theories of Planetary Evolution
Origin of the world according to Kant -- Laplace's nebular hypothesis -- Maintenance of the Sun's heat -- Meteoric hypothesis -- Radiation as an effect of contraction -- Regenerative theory -- Faye's scheme of planetary development -- Origin of the Moon -- Effects of tidal friction

Recent Comets
Donati's Comet -- the Earth again involved in a comet's tail -- Comets of the August and November meteors -- Star showers -- Comets and meteors -- Biela's Comet and the Andromedes -- Holmes's Comet -- Deflection of the Leonids -- Orbits of meteorites -- Meteors with stationary radiants -- Spectroscopic analysis of cometary light -- Comet of 1901 -- Coggia's Comet -- Forms of comet's tails -- Electrical repulsion -- Brédikhine's three types -- Great Southern Comet -- Supposed previous appearances -- Tebbutt's Comet and the Comet of 1807 -- Successful photographs -- Schaeberle's Comet -- Comet Wells -- Sodium blaze in spectrum -- Great Comet of 1882 -- Transit across the Sun -- Relations to Comets of 1843 and 1880 -- Cometary systems -- Spectral changes in Comet of 1882 -- Brook's Comet of 1889 -- Swift's Comet of 1892 -- Origin of comets

Stars and Nebulae
Stellar chemistry -- Four orders of stars -- their relative ages -- Gaseous stars -- Spectroscopic star-catalogues -- stellar chemistry -- hydrogen spectrum in stars -- the Draper Catalogue -- Velocities of stars in line of sight -- spectroscopic binaries -- Eclipses of Algol -- Catalogues of variables -- New stars -- Outbursts in nebulae -- Nova Aurigae -- Nova Persei -- Gaseous nebulae -- Variable nebulae -- Movements of nebulae -- Stellar and nebular photography --Nebulae in the Pleiades -- Photographic star-charting -- Stellar parallax -- Double stars -- Stellar photometry -- Status of nebulae -- Photographs and drawings of the Milky Way -- Star drift

Methods of Research
Development of telescopic power -- Silvered glass reflectors -- Giant refractors -- Comparison with reflectors -- the Yerkes telescope -- Atmospheric disturbance -- the Lick Observatory -- Mechanical difficulties -- the equatorial Coudé -- the photographic camera -- Retrospect and conclusion

Appendix
Chronology, 1774-1893 -- Chemical elements in the Sun (Rowland, 1891) -- Epochs of sun-spot maximum and minimum from 1610 to 1901 -- Movements of Sun and stars -- List of great telescopes -- List of observatories employed in the construction of the photographic chart and catalogue of the heavens

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